The more complicated morphology of the Baetic Cordillera makes it more heterogeneous, with the most heterogeneous soils in Andalusia. In particular, the alluvial soils of the Guadalquivir valley and plain of Granada have a loamy texture and are particularly suitable for intensive irrigated crops. In other zones, the whiter albariza provides an excellent soil for vineyards. Biogeographically, Andalusia forms part of the Western Mediterranean subregion of the Mediterranean Basinwhich falls within the Boreal Kingdom. Five floristic provinces lie, in whole or in part, within Andalusia: along much of the Atlantic coast, the Lusitanian-Andalusian littoral or Andalusian Atlantic littoral; in the north, the southern portion of the Luso-Extremaduran floristic province; covering roughly half of the region, the Baetic floristic province; and in the extreme east, the Almerian portion of the Almerian-Murcian floristic province and coinciding roughly with the upper Segura basin a small portion of the Castilian-Maestrazgan-Manchegan floristic province. These names derive primarily from past or present political geography: "Luso" and "Lusitanian" from Lusitaniaone of three Roman provinces in Iberia, most of the others from present-day Spanish provinces, and Maestrazgo being a historical region of northern Valencia. In broad terms, the typical vegetation of Andalusia is Mediterranean woodlan characterized by leafy xerophilic perennialsadapted to the long, dry summers.
The ratio of the length of rode to the water depth is known as the scope; generally, the rode should be between 5 and 10 times the depth to the seabed, giving a scope of or ; the larger the number, the shallower the angle is between the cable and the seafloor, and the less upwards force is acting on the anchor.
A scope gives the greatest holding power, but also allows for much more drifting due to the longer amount of cable paid out.
This is particularly important for light, modern anchors designed to bury in the bottom, where scopes of to are common, whereas heavy anchors and moorings can use a scope ofor less. Some modern anchors, such as the Ultra will hold with a scope of ; but, unless the anchorage is crowded, a longer scope will always reduce shock stresses.
Since all anchors that embed themselves in the bottom require the strain to be along the seabed, anchors can be broken out of the bottom by shortening the rope until the vessel is directly above the anchor; at this point the anchor chain is "up and down", in naval parlance.